When you work with BI Connector as Tableau-OBIEE connector, during live connection in Tableau, you can apply filters in sheet tab as shown in the below image.
When you work with extract connection, kindly follow the below steps to apply filter to the extract data.
Step 1: Select the required table(s) and select 'Extract' connection
Step 2: Select 'Edit' option.
Step 3: Select 'Add' button under Filters section and select the required column as filter and select the values for filter.
Step 4: Click OK.
Now, when you Click on 'Update Now' button or when you save the extract, above filter will be applied.
This procedure is always recommended to work with the reports effectively and seamlessly.